The article deals with the life and scientific contribution of Robert Lachmann (Berlin 1892- Jerusalem 1939), the founder of comparative musicology and one of themost important researchers of Near East and Far East music. He began his research in Berlin where he helped to found the "Society for the Research of Oriental Music" and he continued his research even after his immigration to Jerusalem. In Jerusalem he founded an archive of recordings on behalf of the Hebrew University; in it he collected a thousand Jewish, Samaritan, and Eastern-Christian recordings during four years. The collection was preserved and is currently kept in the National Sound Archives in Jerusalem. A catalogue of the collection was prepared by the Gerson-Kiwi herself. Besides the recordings, Lachmann’s personal archive including unpublished articles, is also preserved and included in the catalogue. The article includes a bibliography of Lachmann’s writings, his books, articles and reviews.