Also in: Musicological Studies 3 (1980): 139-58. Interviews made during field work in Hungary and Czechoslovakia illustrate the emic concepts about musical composition in Ashkenazic Jewish music. The concepts differ considerably with regard to various styles within the tradition. Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that Hassidic nigumim are original inventions of composers from Hassidic courts. The musical analysis of representative pieces shows that much of this music is in fact re-created from existing musical patterns, respecting particular tonal and formal concepts.