Analysis of the musical texture of the mazurka op. 17, no. 4 shows the use of material borrowed from Chopin's previous works and the presence of elements derived from Polish musical folklore. Considering Chopin's negative attitude toward the Jewish musical idiom, it is unlikely that the piece has any Jewish content. The nickname "Little jew" has generated misunderstanding in the musical interpretation of the mazurka and should be dismissed for the anti-Semitic feeling it expresses.