Gerson-Kiwi's analyses the different types of polyphonies and uses the polyphonies of Yemenite Jews, Samaritans and Jews of Corfu (Greece) to show that polyphonies exist among ethnicities which were not considered the "polyphonic races"- a theory which was prevalent in the early 20th century. Analysis of the music of the three unrelated groups show different kinds of polyphonic singing.
The article presents several case studies in which the application of concepts and tools of music theory and analysis of Ashkenazi liturgical music may apply to the performance practice of this discipline. The first section explores the scalar aspects of the Ahavah Rabbah mode and its symbiosis with the minor scale, and the implications of this similarity on the practicum, especially in the use of congregational tunes.
Hungarian-born liturgical scholar, composer and cantor
Max Wohlberg was born in Humene (today in Ukraine). He immigrated to the U.S. in 1923, where he sang in the choir of the Metropolitan Opera and held several positions as cantor. From 1952 he was professor of liturgy at the Cantors' School of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York (now the H. L. Miller Cantorial School). As a composer, Wholberg mainly wrote modern melodies to liturgical texts.