The article attempts at finding the historical sources of the Nebel till the end of the Second Temple era using biblical, Mishnaic, Greek and other sources. The Nebel was used in Israel from the early eighth century BCE in both secular and religious functions. By the end of the first Temple era it was used in Judea in a secular function. The nebel is described as a special type of lire rather than a harp.
An introduction to the Tropes (Te'amim) for the cantillation of the Pentateuch, with special emphasis on the Western European (Ashkenazi) musical tradition. Includes historical notes and musical examples.